Why Is It So Hard to Fix Traffic?

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Fixing traffic seems easy—just add more roads, right? Turns out that this is a problem studied by physicists and psychologists alike, with no easy answers.

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Sources:
http://www.physics.upenn.edu/liugroup/jamming.html
https://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.48.3290
https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2000/12/the-physics-of-gridlock/378457/
http://jliszka.github.io/2013/10/01/how-traffic-actually-works.html
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/243567449_Shock_Wave_Relation_Containing_Lane_Change_Source_Term_for_Two-Lane_Traffic_Flow
https://books.google.com/books?id=dHW1BQAAQBAJ&pg=PA509&lpg=PA509#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-77074-9_41
http://homepage.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/Dietrich.Braess/Paradox-BNW.pdf
https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2016/10/20/bad-traffic-blame-braess-paradox/
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=783424
http://www.vtpi.org/gentraf.pdf
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2006/nov/01/society.travelsenvironmentalimpact
https://grist.org/infrastructure/2011-04-04-seoul-korea-tears-down-an-urban-highway-life-goes-on/
http://legacy.wbur.org/2012/07/12/big-dig-effect
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHzzSao6ypE
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a59b/0aa97491aed923a38742142fc6492e51b080.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375327
https://www.wsj.com/articles/one-driver-can-prevent-a-traffic-jam-1476204858
https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/55073/811079.pdf?sequence=1
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/aa95f0
https://www.quora.com/At-a-red-light-why-do-some-drivers-leave-a-huge-gap-between-themselves-and-the-car-in-front-of-them
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160913125211.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/8011029/Aggressive-and-timid-drivers-cause-traffic-jams-scientists-discover.html
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-24660-9_25
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/us/why-last-second-lane-mergers-are-good-for-traffic.html

Media:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Miami_traffic_jam,_I-95_North_rush_hour.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seoul-Restoration_site_02.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:San_Francisco-Embarcadero_Freeway_demolition.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:San_Francisco_(5765603478).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheonggyecheon.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jazda_na_suwak_ulica_Starzy%C5%84skiego_wjazd_na_Most_Gda%C5%84ski_w_Warszawie.JPG

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