Every Scientific Study on Arnold Schwarzenegger

Sometimes I use this platform for good, sometimes I use it to uncover every scientific study mentioning Arnold Schwarzenegger.

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After using a study mentioning Schwarzenegger a few episodes ago, I wondered, “How many scientific studies mention Arnold Schwarzenegger?” And when I looked into it, the answer REALLY got out of hand. This was a real pain in the neck.

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

Thanks to Teagan Wall for her research support (she is now the #1 world expert on Arnold Schwarzenegger in academia). This episode was written by Teagan Wall and Vanessa Hill. Filmed by Dominique Taylor and Edited by Vanessa Hill.

REFERENCES 📚
All papers mentioned here you can find in this document: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1bg_d3ZoFUs-b7V_gVKqZbjgaOdA4fTptCxM_E6xn8X0/edit?usp=sharing

7 Extreme Animal Moms

From changing diapers to cleaning up vomit, human parents can have it tough, but at least they don’t have to incubate their babies under their skin or liquify their own guts to feed their brood like these animal moms do!

In honor of Mother’s Day in the United states, we’ve put together a list of moms that take parenting to another level.

Hosted by: Hank Green

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-18507515
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/06/18/rspb.2012.1038
https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/six-facts-about-elephant-families-9015298.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/corpus-luteum
http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/surinam-toad
https://www.wired.com/2013/12/absurd-creature-of-the-week-the-toad-whose-young-erupt-from-her-skin/
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1439751
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1440965
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1439843
https://www.britannica.com/animal/hornbill
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3676330
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1989.tb04791.x
https://doi.org/10.1080/00306525.1969.9639117
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/running-ponies/new-skin-feeding-amphibian-found-in-french-guiana/
http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/4/358
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057756
http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_18.shtml
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/PL00012662
https://books.google.com/books?id=R-7TaridBX0C&lpg=PA588&ots=sLZPkcBK0a&dq=african%20driver%20ant&pg=PA593#v=onepage&q=african%20driver%20ant&f=false
https://www.britannica.com/animal/driver-anthttp://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/15/resurrecting-the-extinct-frog-with-a-stomach-for-a-womb/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347281801753
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/09/spiders-mothers-cannibals-arachnids/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347217302555?via%3Dihub
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000334720191961X

Why These Squirrels Destroy Their Brains Every Winter

It seems like a terrible idea to destroy and rebuild your own brain, but that is exactly what some ground squirrels are doing all winter long.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/apr/10/arctic-ground-squirrel-key-alzheimers-cure
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/arctic-ground-squirrel-brain/
https://www.nps.gov/dena/learn/nature/arcticgroundsquirrel.htm
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150218-arctic-ground-squirrels-supercool-slumber
https://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpregu.2000.279.1.R255
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/030645229290336Z
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136081/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20415141_Freeze_avoidance_in_a_mammal_Body_temperatures_below_0_degree_C_in_an_Arctic_hibernator
https://kundoc.com/pdf-hibernation-induced-structural-changes-in-synaptic-contacts-between-mossy-fibres.html
http://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/41/10590.full
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/074873040101600309
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16219369
———-
Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spermophilus_parryii_(eating_mushroom).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golden-mantled_ground_squirrel_-_Bow_Lake.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spermophilus_undulatus1.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PSM_V84_D158_Thirteen-lined_ground_squirrel_awakening_from_hibernation.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hibernation#/media/File:PSM_V84_D159_Thirteen-lined_ground_squirrel_awakening_from_hibernation.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/small-chipmunk-gm488364313-39242694
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/neurons-electric-pulse-gm629614340-112085713
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden-mantled_ground_squirrel#/media/File:Golden_mantled_ground_squirrel.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden-mantled_ground_squirrel#/media/File:Goldmantelziesel.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden-mantled_ground_squirrel#/media/File:Callospermophilus_lateralis_Bryce_Canyon.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/brain-anatomy-icon-gm658237426-120133117

Why Do We Itch?

Scratch that itch and SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub
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↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

It’s one of the most annoying sensations our bodies can feel, but does anything feel better than when you scratch an itch? Ok, maybe *some* things. But itching and scratching are up there. How does this weird sensation work? And what is itching for?

References: http://bit.ly/2IiIqWn

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Why Yapoks Need a Pouch for Their Junk

Yapoks are cute aquatic marsupials, and they’re the only living creatures that need pouches for their sacs.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Jerry Perez, Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطان الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali. Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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———-
Sources:
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4671/0
https://www.britannica.com/animal/water-opossum
https://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-09/mystery-animal-contest-who-creepy-handed-yelper
https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article/90/1/93/856014
https://academic.oup.com/mspecies/article-abstract/doi/10.2307/0.109.1/2600548
https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article/85/5/834/858976
https://books.google.com/books?id=wqIi6YTFPooC&lpg=PA75&ots=teN9_NezsS&dq=thylacine%20water%20opossum%20pouch&pg=PA75#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://books.google.com/books?id=2rkHQpToi9sC&lpg=PA676&ots=hFguLx67sv&dq=pinniped%20inguinal%20testes&pg=PA678#v=onepage&q=pinniped%20inguinal%20testes&f=false
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.1092430314/full
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14662787
http://www.publish.csiro.au/rd/pdf/srb03ab59
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17474098
http://mentalfloss.com/article/54655/why-does-it-feel-so-cold-when-you-step-out-shower

Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look

The silent star of classic Westerns is a plant on a mission. It starts out green and full of life. It even grows flowers. But to reproduce effectively, it needs to turn into a rolling brown skeleton.

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DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

Tumbleweeds might be the iconic props of classic Westerns. But in real life, they’re not only a noxious weed, but one that moves around. Pushed by gusts of wind, they can overwhelm entire neighborhoods, as happened recently in Victorville, California, or become a threat for drivers and an expensive nuisance for farmers.

“They tumble across highways and can cause accidents,” said Mike Pitcairn, who tracks tumbleweeds at the California Department of Food and Agriculture in Sacramento. “They pile up against fences and homes.”

And tumbleweeds aren’t even originally from the West.

Genetic tests have shown that California’s most common tumbleweed, known as Russian thistle, likely came from Ukraine, said retired plant population biologist Debra Ayres, who studied tumbleweeds at the University of California, Davis.

A U.S. Department of Agriculture employee, L. H. Dewey, wrote in 1893 that Russian thistle had arrived in the U.S. through South Dakota in flaxseed imported from Europe in the 1870s.

“It has been known in Russia many years,” Dewey wrote, “and has quite as bad a reputation in the wheat regions there as it has in the Dakotas.” This is where the name Russian thistle originates, said Ayres, although tumbleweeds aren’t really thistles.

The weed spread quickly through the United States — on rail cars, through contamination of agricultural seeds and by tumbling.
“They tumble to disperse the seeds,” said Ayres, “and thereby reduce competition.”

By bouncing and rolling, a tumbleweed spreads out tens of thousands of seeds so that they all get plenty of sunlight and space.

Tumbleweeds grow well in barren places like abandoned agricultural fields, vacant lots or the side of the road, where they can tumble unobstructed and there’s no grass, which their seedlings can’t compete with.

— Where does a tumbleweed come from?

Tumbleweeds start out as any plant, attached to the soil. Seedlings, which look like blades of grass with a bright pink stem, sprout at the end of the winter. By summer, Russian thistle plants take on their round shape and grow flowers. Inside each flower, a fruit with a single seed develops.

Other plants attract animals with tasty fruits, and get them to carry away their seeds and disperse them when they poop.

Tumbleweeds developed a different evolutionary strategy. Starting in late fall, they dry out and die, their seeds nestled between prickly leaves. Gusts of wind easily break dead tumbleweeds from their roots and they roll away, spreading their seeds as they go.

— How big do tumbleweeds grow?

Mike Pitcairn, of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, said they can grow to be more than 6 feet tall in parts of the state like the San Joaquin Valley.

— Are tumbleweeds dangerous?

Yes. They can cause traffic accidents, and they can be a fire hazard if they pile up against buildings.

—+ More great Deep Look episodes:

How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IoOJu2_FKE

This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycUNj_Hv4_Y

Upside-Down Catfish Doesn’t Care What You Think
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Above the Noise: Why Is Vaping So Popular?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9zps5LsVXs

Hot Mess: What Happened to Nuclear Power?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jEXZZDU6Gk

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—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

How Gaslighting Manipulates Your Mind | Field Guide to Bad Behaviour

Has anyone ever made you question your reality? How gaslighting manipulates your mind.

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Humans are complicated: a tangled web of amazing biology and bad behaviours. This illustrated field guide will equip you with the necessary tools to navigate the lying, jealous and judgmental tendencies of your fellow humans. This week we explore gaslighting, a form of emotional abuse and thought manipulation.

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

REFERENCES 📚
Barton & Whitehead (1969) “The gas-light phenomenon”. Lancet https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(69)92133-3

Why we lie: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/06/lying-hoax-false-fibs-science/

Turning up the light on gaslighting, 2014: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/phpe.12046

Gaslighting in politics: https://www.nytimes.com/1995/11/26/opinion/l-liberties-the-gaslight-strategy-066192.html

Workplace abuse http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244017715076

Why Do You Stick Out Your Tongue When You Concentrate?

Have you ever done something that required a ton of concentration, like threading a needle, and noticed that sometimes your tongue pokes out involuntarily? It turns out this reflex could be a leftover from the evolution of human language!

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Jerry Perez, Lazarus G, Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطان الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
http://www.devcogneuro.com/Publications/motor_%26_cog_paper.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3324315/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4029519/
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7e36/52b77387ed4c911d9d78b220f79e8156a28b.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/9004569_From_Mouth_to_Hand_Gesture_Speech_and_the_Evolution_of_Right-Handedness

Upside-Down Catfish Doesn’t Care What You Think

You might suppose this catfish is sick, or just confused. But swimming belly-up actually helps it camouflage and breathe better than its right-side-up cousins.

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DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

Normally, an upside-down fish in your tank is bad news. As in, it’s time for a new goldfish.

That’s because most fish have an internal air sac called a “swim bladder” that allows them to control their buoyancy and orientation. They fill the bladder with air when they want to rise, and deflate it when they want to sink. Fish without swim bladders, like sharks, have to swim constantly to keep from dropping to the bottom.

If an aquarium fish is listing to one side or flops over on its back, it often means it has swim bladder disease, a potentially life-threatening condition usually brought on parasites, overfeeding, or high nitrate levels in the water.

But for a few remarkable fish, being upside-down means everything is great.

In fact, seven species of catfish native to Central Africa live most of their lives upended. These topsy-turvy swimmers are anatomically identical to their right-side up cousins, despite having such an unusual orientation.

People’s fascination with the odd alignment of these fish goes back centuries. Studies of these quizzical fish have found a number of reasons why swimming upside down makes a lot of sense.

In an upside-down position, fish produce a lot less wave drag. That means upside-down catfish do a better job feeding on insect larvae at the waterline than their right-side up counterparts, who have to return to deeper water to rest.

There’s something else at the surface that’s even more important to a fish’s survival than food: oxygen. The gas essential to life readily dissolves from the air into the water, where it becomes concentrated in a thin layer at the waterline — right where the upside-down catfish’s mouth and gills are perfectly positioned to get it.

Scientists estimate that upside-down catfishes have been working out their survival strategy for as long at 35 million years. Besides their breathing and feeding behavior, the blotched upside-down catfish from the Congo Basin has also evolved a dark patch on its underside to make it harder to see against dark water.

That coloration is remarkable because it’s the opposite of most sea creatures, which tend to be darker on top and lighter on the bottom, a common adaptation called “countershading” that offsets the effects of sunlight.

The blotched upside-down catfish’s “reverse” countershading has earned it the scientific name negriventris, which means black-bellied.

— How many kinds of fish swim upside down?

A total of seven species in Africa swim that way. Upside-down swimming may have evolved independent in a few of the species – and at least one more time in a catfish from Asia.

— How do fish stay upright?

They have an air-filled swim bladder on the inside that that they can fill or deflate to maintain balance or to move up or down in the water column.

— What are the benefits of swimming upside down?

Upside down, a fish swims more efficiently at the waterline, where there’s more oxygen and better access to some prey.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:

https://ww2.kqed.org/2018/04/14/the-mystery-of-the-upside-down-catfish

—+ For more information:

The California Academy of Sciences has upside-down catfish in its aquarium collection: https://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/steinhart-aquarium

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning
https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII

This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards
https://youtu.be/E2unnSK7WTE

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

PBS Eons: What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k

Origin of Everything: The Origin of Race in the USA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVxAlmAPHec

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Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

Are you lying to yourself? | Field Guide to Bad Behaviour

Do you lie to yourself? Be… honest. This week we cover the psychology of self-deception.
Last week: Why People Blame Others https://youtu.be/HQQe_yFDf0U

ORDER BRAINCRAFT MERCH! 🧠https://store.dftba.com/collections/braincraft
SUBSCRIBE to BrainCraft! 👉 http://ow.ly/rt5IE

Humans are complicated: a tangled web of amazing biology and bad behaviours. This illustrated field guide will equip you with the necessary tools to navigate the lying, jealous and judgmental tendencies of your fellow humans. This week we explore self-deception, the act of lying to yourself.

My Twitter https://twitter.com/nessyhill | Instagram https://instagram.com/nessyhill

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

This episode was written by Bahar Gholipour and filmed by Dominique Taylor. Animations by Vanessa Hill.
And thank you to Mike Rugnetta for his help improving the audio.

REFERENCES 📚
The Elements of a Scientific Theory of Self‐Deception:
https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06619.x

Self-deception facilitates interpersonal persuasion: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0167487016301854

Positive illusions: Creative self-deception and the healthy mind:
http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-98298-000

A status-enhancement account of overconfidence:
http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-18756-001

A Longitudinal Test of Three Theories of Overconfidence
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1948550617699252