How Pregnancy Is Like Growing an Alien Inside You

Pregnancy is quite a feat. The embryo manages to develop, get food, and get rid of their waste, all while staying under the radar of their parent’s immune system.

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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Sources:
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-12/cp-ic121317.php
https://aeon.co/essays/why-pregnancy-is-a-biological-war-between-mother-and-baby
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100814-125620 forgotten organ
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28712140 reimagining parasite
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928162/ physiological changes
http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/relaxin/
http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/normal-pregnancy/stages-of-development-of-the-fetus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154715/ vascular changes speech
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200776/ nutrient
http://www.hapmd.com/home/hapmdcom/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/sub/articulos-e-imagenes/20110615_endocrinology_of_pregnancy_and_fetoplacental_unit.pdf
http://www.cell.com/trends/immunology/fulltext/S1471-4906(17)30023-6 hla-g
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/transport.html
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/408910_2
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139600/ treg
http://blogs.plos.org/dnascience/2013/10/03/when-does-a-human-life-begins-17-timepoints/
http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/approach-to-the-pregnant-woman-and-prenatal-care/physiology-of-pregnancy
https://www.livescience.com/50877-regnancy-body-changes.html
https://www.livescience.com/16937-body-pregnancy.html
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system/fetal-circulation/v/meet-the-placenta
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7295162_Trowsdale_J_Betz_AGMother‘s_little_helpers_mechanisms_of_maternal-fetal_tolerance_Nat_Immunol_7241-246
https://f1000research.com/articles/6-1216/v1
https://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v17/n8/full/nri.2017.38.html
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143400417301790
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53254/ placental stats
http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html
http://jme.endocrinology-journals.org/content/60/1/R23.full
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.201500059/full microchimerism
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1007/s12522-011-0102-9/full remodeling
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472320/
https://books.google.com/books?id=s53ImjKyJxIC&pg=PA266
———-
Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Placenta.svg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-normal-pregnant-female-anatomy/530510038
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-from-ovulation-to-fertilization/646723326
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastocyst#/media/File:Blastocyst_English.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastocyst#/media/File:Human_blastocyst.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-3d-illustration-early-stage-embryo-stem-cell/904268718/popup
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-count-dracula/514459808
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-blood-vessels/155597214/popup?sq=blood%20vessels/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-virus-and-antibodies/639848808
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-red-blood-cells-in-vein/637422184/popup?sq=blood/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-human-egg-and-womb/479892204/popup?sq=embryos/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-how-does-insulin-work-illustrated/904816340/popup?sq=insulin/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-top-view-of-white-sugar-cubes-on-turquoise/833229890
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Healthy_Human_T_Cell.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-macrophage-binding-with-t-cell/629496602
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-t-cells/628064556
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-portrait-of-a-three-generation-family/200280711-001

Thoughts from VERY Dead Animals

In which Hank goes to a paleontological museum and it’s GREAT!

Kallie, Blake, and Hank take you on a journey through the history of life: http://www.youtube.com/eons

I am aware that it is peculiar that I have now met two charismatic young women working at amazing museums featuring dead stuff at The University of Montana, but this is the world we live in, I guess!

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These Ant Paramedics Save Their Injured Comrades

A species of ant has been discovered to rescue and tend to the battle wounds of other ants injured while hunting, and scientists think that this is the first time this behavior has ever been observed in insects.

Thumbnail photo by Erik T. Franks

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2018-02/uow-mcf020918.php
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2457
http://www.gorongosa.org/explore-park/wildlife/micro-world/matabele-ants
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180208141346.htm
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6376/693.full
https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/08/584330475/major-psychiatric-disorders-have-more-in-common-than-we-thought-study-finds
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0024757/
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/major-mental-illnesses-unexpectedly-share-brain-gene-activity-raising-hope-better

Why Echidnas Are Evolutionary Misfits

Go to Squarespace.com/SciShow for a free trial and use the offer code SCISHOW to support this channel and save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain.

It’s pretty well known that Australia is home to some strange animals, but echidnas are especially weird evolutionary misfits.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/how-the-platypus-and-echidna-lost-their-stomachs.aspx
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/many-animals-including-the-platypus-lost-their-stomachs-180948103/
http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/12/03/how-the-platypus-and-a-quarter-of-fishes-lost-their-stomachs/
http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/echidna.aspx
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006070#s1
http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO09037
https://eprints.utas.edu.au/2320/1/Nicol_et_al._2007_The_life_history_of_an_egg-laying_mammal2C_the_echidna_Ecoscience.pdf
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531556508001629
http://reptilepark.com.au/animals/mammals/echidna/
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/01/11/3110568.htm
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcp.1040670108/abstract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5399094/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2441467/
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/obl4he/vertebratediversity/monotremes.html
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/522847?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/Factsheet3Echidnas.pdf
http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1591&context=hbspapers
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290413985_Marsupial_and_Monotreme_Evolution_And_Biogeography

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heteropoda_venatoria_-_female_at_Mechode_Padur.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CSIRO_ScienceImage_10356_Superb_Lyrebird.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monotreme_reproductive_organs.png

What If We Were All Optimists?

Surprise! You’re more optimistic than you think.
PBS Digital Studios is grateful to Bill and Melinda Gates for their support. If you’d like to take a look at the 2018 Annual Letter, you can check it out here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j

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BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

This episode//
Written by Bahar Gholipour
Produced, Edited and Hosted by Vanessa Hill
Filming by Dominique Taylor
Animations by Jade Tan-Holmes

REFERENCES 📚
Sharot, T. (2011). The optimism bias. Current biology, 21(23), R941-R945. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982211011912

Strunk, D. R., Lopez, H., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2006). Depressive symptoms are associated with unrealistic negative predictions of future life events. Behaviour research and therapy, 44(6), 861-882. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796705001476

Sharot, T., Korn, C. W., & Dolan, R. J. (2011). How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality. Nature neuroscience, 14(11), 1475. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204264/

Odds of dying: http://www.nsc.org/learn/safety-knowledge/Pages/injury-facts-chart.aspx and http://driveithome.org/201801-andy-pilgrim-distracted-driving

Valentine’s Day – Mental Floss Scatterbrained

Scatterbrained is a new trivia show in which different hosts do a deep dive into one topic. Today, we’re learning all about Valentine’s Day – from love celebrations around the world to some of nature’s most devoted pairs!

Subscribe for new episodes of Scatterbrained every other Wednesday!

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For Pacific Mole Crabs It’s Dig or Die | Deep Look

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they’re safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed.

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DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

* NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! *

Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline.

Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason — to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” — and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out.

McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand.

McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots.

— What are Pacific Mole Crabs?

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves.

— What makes those holes in the sand at the beach?

When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes.

— What do birds eat in the wet beach sand?

Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:

https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/

—+ For more information:

Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow
https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/

Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings.
http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04

These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic

Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY

There’s Something Very Fishy About These Trees … | Deep Look
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U

The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg

Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58

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KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
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—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

Tuatara All The Way Down – Face To Face With A Living Fossil!

Your now is not your forever (unless you’re a tuatara)
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Special thanks to John Green! And to Amber Faasen and the Dallas Zoo herpetarium team!

During the 2017 Project For Awesome livestream, I promised I’d make a tuatara video if we hit our fundraising goal, and I’m a man of my word! Little did I know I’d get to meet a tuatara and learn things about a 200 million year old branch of life that would blow my mind. Get ready to meet the chillest reptile, weird living fossil, and star of Turtles All The Way Down… the tuatara.

3D tuatara skull animation courtesy of Digimorph: http://www.digimorph.org/

READ MORE:
“Turtles All The Way Down” by John Green: http://amzn.to/2GU2c6J

“Horseshoe Crabs and Velvet Worms: The Story of the Animals and Plants That Time Has Left Behind” by Richard Fortey http://amzn.to/2EpcfT2

Hay, J. M., Subramanian, S., Millar, C. D., Mohandesan, E., & Lambert, D. M. (2008). Rapid molecular evolution in a living fossil. Trends in Genetics, 24(3), 106-109.

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What happens during a stroke? – Vaibhav Goswami

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Every two seconds, someone in the world has a stroke. One out of every six people will have a stroke at some point in their lives. Strokes deprive brain cells of oxygen and are one of the most common causes of death, and a leading cause of preventable disability. But what causes strokes in the first place? And what can doctors do to treat them? Vaibhav Goswami takes us into the body to find out.

Lesson by Vaibhav Goswami, animation by Artrake Studio.

Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! John Saveland, Nicolle Fieldsend-Roxborough, Mridul Goswami, Venkat Venkatakrishnan, Sandy Nasser, CG Nobles, QIUJING L BU, Yoga Trapeze Wanderlust, Jaron Blackburn, Alejandro Cachoua, Thomas Mungavan, Elena Crescia, Edla Paniguel, Sarah Lundegaard, Charlsey, Anna-Pitschna Kunz, Tim Armstrong, Alessandro, Erika Blanquez, Ricki Daniel Marbun, zjweele13 , Judith Benavides, Znosheni Kedy, Caitlin de Falco, Scheherazade Kelii, Errys, James Bruening, Michael Braun-Boghos, Ricardo Diaz, Kack-Kyun Kim, Alexandrina Danifeld, Danny Romard, Yujing Jiang, Stina Boberg, Mariana Ortega, Anthony Wiggins, Hoai Nam Tran, Joe Sims, David Petrovič, Kat, Chris Adriaensen, Lowell Fleming, Lorenzo Margiotta, Amir Ghandeharioon, Anuj Tomar, Sunny Patel, Rachel Birenbaum, Vijayalakshmi , Devesh Kumar, Uday Kishore, Aidan Forero, Leen Mshasha, Allan Hayes, Thomas Bahrman, Alexander Baltadzhiev, Connor Yuzwenko-Martin, Vaibhav Mirjolkar, Tony, Michelle, Katie and Josh Pedretti, Erik Biemans, and Gaurav Mathur.

How Remixes Hijack Your Brain

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More about the book (my video 🙃) https://youtu.be/xwlwNzLOGmA

YouTube, as a platform for creative expression, has inspired a new form of modern creativity. In this video essay, I explore how the remix, a product of this participatory creativity, hijacks your brain. Why do we love watching things we’ve probably already seen be reproduced in new ways?

Written, edited and produced by Vanessa Hill. Thanks to Kevin Allocca for his help with this video.

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BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

FURTHER READING 📚
Videocracy: How YouTube is Changing the World https://kevinallocca.com/videocracy
Youth on YouTube as Smart Swarms: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00043125.2014.11519263?journalCode=uare20
Mashup Culture: https://books.google.com/books?id=tHQB-kLxlZ8C&source=gbs_book_other_versions
Secrets of Supercuts | Slate: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/the_browser/2012/11/how_to_make_a_supercut_secrets_of_the_youtube_collage_form_revealed.html
Handbook of Creativity https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/11443_01_Henry_Ch01.pdf
Communicating creativity on YouTube: what and for whom?
https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/1920104/file/6761597.pdf

VIDEOS 📽
Classics
Bob Ross Remixed | Happy Little Clouds | PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLO7tCdBVrA
Reading Rainbow Remixed | In Your Imagination | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/-FD1K8OvVCs
Mister Rogers Remixed | Garden of Your Mind | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/OFzXaFbxDcM
Julia Child Remixed | Keep On Cooking | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/80ZrUI7RNfI
Wishery | Pogo https://youtu.be/qs1bG6BIYlo
Time Machine | Pogo & Skye https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtr5q6dn7CA
Muppet Mash | Pogo https://youtu.be/pwvflO3QKrI
Kutiman, GIVE IT UP https://youtu.be/WoHxoz_0ykI
DOUBLE RAINBOW SONG!! https://youtu.be/MX0D4oZwCsA
160 Greatest Arnold Schwarzenegger Quotes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDxn0Xfqkgw

On Remixes
Why videos go viral | Kevin Allocca https://youtu.be/BpxVIwCbBK0
Are YouTubers Revolutionizing Entertainment? | Off Book | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/H3-YxxqSN5c
Henry Jenkins on Participatory Culture https://youtu.be/1gPm-c1wRsQ
Why Do We Experience Nostalgia? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dJw9TN0hoE
I Could Do That | The Art Assignment https://youtu.be/67EKAIY43kg

All Star
Smash Mouth – All Star https://youtu.be/L_jWHffIx5E
All Star but it’s played on two calculators https://youtu.be/3rfdYej30Dw
VILLAGE PEOPLE – Y.M.C.A. VOCAL COVER 2016 (OFFICIAL) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTwxtYin1p0
ADELE – HELLO VOCAL COVER 2016 (OFFICIAL) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uef0Qr56mKo
Smashmouth Recreated From Windows XP Sounds https://youtu.be/ahXQ7e8w7mQ

Shia
Shia LaBeouf “Just Do It” Motivational Speech (Original Video by LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXsQAXx_ao0
Shia LaBeouf TED Talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=os6U77Hhm_s
I’m sorry Shia, I’m afraid I can’t do that https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=loeZ-z9ct0Q
Shiawalker Inspirational https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxCCp3nbCEk
Apple Watch Shia LaBeouf Edition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RZC7iBEAsk
Just Do It! ft. Auto-tuned Shia LaBeouf (Motivational Music Video) ORIGINAL
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLOpX2cu-4g&feature=youtu.be&t=28s
This Is Sparta Shia LaBeouf – JUST DO IT https://youtu.be/XW74pHNxkaM
Damn It Shia https://youtu.be/k_e67Wwumz8
Shia LaBeouf motivates the Death Eaters [Harry Potter] https://youtu.be/CZgRTDApBks
+1 Shia every 3 seconds https://youtu.be/oTz93Y-qeq0
JUST DO IT!!! ft. Shia LaBeouf – Songify This https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UhRXn2NRiWI

Political
Gaddafi-Zenga Song-No girl edit version (Noy Alooshe Remix) https://youtu.be/6GcUutnU2gk
“Zenga” Clip about Gaddafi https://youtu.be/XeuZiFRzb4k
BRITAIN’S NEW LEADER RAPS LIKE A BOSS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xv7Jd94bnOI
Angela Merkel Sings Yung Hurn – Nein https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egZzDwJI-Bg
Cassetteboy – Cameron’s Conference Rap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YBumQHPAeU
Tony Abbott: “NO No NO” https://youtu.be/fi-q0ALVzPg
Barack Obama Singing Call Me Maybe by Carly Rae Jepsen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hX1YVzdnpEc&feature=youtu.be&t=34s
236.com: Synchronized Presidential Debating https://youtu.be/wfd5g8Y_Jqo

Supercuts
Sorkinisms – A Supercut https://youtu.be/S78RzZr3IwI
Alex Trebek is a Savage | Super Deluxe Super Cuts https://youtu.be/b8NCjz6ghrU
I’m Not Here to Make Friends! https://youtu.be/w536Alnon24

Humour
Why Do We Laugh? | Sci Show https://youtu.be/Ov-kXSS1_yc
Why Do We Laugh? | It’s Okay to be Smart https://youtu.be/9WzVMZunzaM