Lemurs Are Into Networking, Too!

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New research says that even lemurs benefit from networking skills and some frogs are finally bouncing back from the Chytrid epidemic.

Hosted by: Hank Green

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Jerry Perez, Lazarus G, Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطان الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6383/1517
https://amphibiaweb.org/chytrid/chytridiomycosis.html
———-
Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ringtailed_lemurs.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-baby-lemur-with-family/518460792
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lemur_catta_003.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chytridiomycosis2.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-view-at-panama-city/597658018
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atelopus_varius_1.jpg
https://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/38249141464/
https://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/39129578104/
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-mathematical-vector-seamless-pattern/908884386
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-set-of-gear-icon/895674904
https://freesound.org/people/straget/sounds/405423/

Solving the Mystery of Darwin’s Lifelong Illness

Charles Darwin had a great mind, but a not-so great body. Scientists have spent years trying to uncover the mysteries of his poor health.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

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Sources:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Darwin
https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/gen_info/detailed.html
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs340/en/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2166138/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1326207/
https://malvernmuseum.co.uk/water-cure/
https://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/letter/DCP-LETT-1236.xml
https://www.britannica.com/science/mitochondrion
http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b4968.full
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632469/
https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7048/mitochondrial-genetic-disorders
https://www.umdf.org/what-is-mitochondrial-disease/
https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/melas-syndrome/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737121/#!po=3.12500
http://www.mayo.edu/research/centers-programs/mitochondrial-disease-biobank/about
http://pmj.bmj.com/content/81/954/248
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038596
http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/61/1/23
http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/62/2/205

How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks | Deep Look

Why can’t you just flick a tick? Because it attaches to you with a mouth covered in hooks, while it fattens up on your blood. For days. But don’t worry – there *is* a way to pull it out.

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DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

Spring is here. Unfortunately for hikers and picnickers out enjoying the warmer weather, the new season is prime time for ticks, which can transmit bacteria that cause Lyme disease.

How they latch on – and stay on – is a feat of engineering that scientists have been piecing together. Once you know how a tick’s mouth works, you understand why it’s impossible to simply flick a tick.

The key to their success is a menacing mouth covered in hooks that they use to get under the surface of our skin and attach themselves for several days while they fatten up on our blood.

“Ticks have a lovely, evolved mouth part for doing exactly what they need to do, which is extended feeding,” said Kerry Padgett, supervising public health biologist at the California Department of Public Health in Richmond. “They’re not like a mosquito that can just put their mouth parts in and out nicely, like a hypodermic needle.”

Instead, a tick digs in using two sets of hooks. Each set looks like a hand with three hooked fingers. The hooks dig in and wriggle into the skin. Then these “hands” bend in unison to perform approximately half-a-dozen breaststrokes that pull skin out of the way so the tick can push in a long stubby part called the hypostome.

“It’s almost like swimming into the skin,” said Dania Richter, a biologist at the Technische Universität in Braunschweig, Germany, who has studied the mechanism closely. “By bending the hooks it’s engaging the skin. It’s pulling the skin when it retracts.”

The bottom of their long hypostome is also covered in rows of hooks that give it the look of a chainsaw. Those hooks act like mini-harpoons, anchoring the tick to us for the long haul.

“They’re teeth that are backwards facing, similar to one of those gates you would drive over but you’re not allowed to back up or else you’d puncture your tires,” said Padgett.

— How to remove a tick.
Kerry Padgett, at the California Department of Public Health, recommends grabbing the tick close to the skin using a pair of fine tweezers and simply pulling straight up.

“No twisting or jerking,” she said. “Use a smooth motion pulling up.”

Padgett warned against using other strategies.

“Don’t use Vaseline or try to burn the tick or use a cotton swab soaked in soft soap or any of these other techniques that might take a little longer or might not work at all,” she said. “You really want to remove the tick as soon as possible.”

— What happens if the mouth of a tick breaks off in your skin?
Don’t worry if the tick’s mouth parts stay behind when you pull.

“The mouth parts are not going to transmit disease to people,” said Padgett.

If the mouth stayed behind in your skin, it will eventually work its way out, sort of like a splinter does, she said. Clean the bite area with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1920972/how-ticks-dig-in-with-a-mouth-full-of-hooks

—+ For more information:
Centers for Disease Control information on Lyme disease:
https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/

Mosquito & Vector Control District for San Mateo County, California:
https://www.smcmvcd.org/ticks

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU

So … Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWdCMFvgFbo

Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Above the Noise: Are Energy Drinks Really that Bad?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5l0cjsZS-eM

It’s Okay To Be Smart: Inside an ICE CAVE! – Nature’s Most Beautiful Blue
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7LKm9jtm8I

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—+ About KQED
KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

Football, Dementia, and the Future of Sports

It’s not like anyone thought head injuries were good for people, but the long term effects of concussions has researchers, coaches, and doctors concerned about the extra risks of some popular sports.

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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———-
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https://www.nof.org/patients/what-is-osteoporosis/
https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/osteoarthritis/
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https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sprained-ankle/symptoms-causes/syc-20353225
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tendinitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20378243
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stress-fractures/symptoms-causes/syc-20354057
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15262641
http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/48/4/287.full?sid=bd122323-896f-4b27-afe1-d37beeed4a8e
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/08/25/peds.2016-2148
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0363546517710213
https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/07/25/539334374/student-athletes-who-specialize-early-are-injured-more-often-study-finds
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https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/29/health/sports-injuries-football-yale.html
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http://natajournals.org/doi/10.4085/1062-6050-51.4.05
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Images:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chronic_Traumatic_Encephalopathy.png
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com

Optogenetics: Using Light to Control Your Brain

Optogenetics may allow us to use light like a remote control for our brains, and treat diseases like retinitis pigmentosa.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/05/18/lighting-the-brain
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756725/
https://www.nature.com/articles/nmeth.f.324
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17873414
https://www.nature.com/news/laser-used-to-control-mouse-s-brain-and-speed-up-milkshake-consumption-1.20995
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature19055
http://www.cell.com/molecular-therapy-family/molecular-therapy/fulltext/S1525-0016(16)32488-1
http://news.mit.edu/2011/blindness-boyden-0420
https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.2834
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4582796/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC283525/
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113817
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124340/
https://kids.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frym.2017.00051
http://www.caltech.edu/news/mapping-neurons-improve-treatment-parkinsons-50521
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155186/#bib-026
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-2560/4/3/S02/meta

Surprise! Your Brain Has a Secret Sewer System

Scientists have found a hidden network in the brain, and it might prevent people from developing certain diseases.

Hosted by: Brit Garner
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———-
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749839/
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Image Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebrospinal_fluid#/media/File:1317_CFS_Circulation.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cerebrospinal_fluid#/media/File:4_vials_of_human_cerebrospinal_fluid.jpg

Photograph of Helen FitzGerald Cserr, ca.1970. Unknown photographer. Helen FitzGerald Cserr interview, 2016. Brown Women Speak oral history project, Pembroke Center, Brown University: https://www.brown.edu/initiatives/women-speak/interview/helen-fitzgerald-cserr-class-faculty.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Video_schematic_of_glymphatic_flow.ogv
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meninges-en.svg

Defusing the Population Bomb

Thank you to Bill and Melinda Gates for supporting PBS Digital Studios. If you’d like to take a look at the 2018 Annual Letter, you can check it out here http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

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Is overpopulation real? Is Earth filling up with too many humans? How many people can Earth hold, anyway? As our species approaches 8 billion, human overpopulation is a major concern for many people. How can we reduce poverty and our impact on the environment? Do we need a forced one-child policy or something? Maybe not, because when we look at the science and history, populations seem to control themselves. This week we look at all these questions and more.

READ MORE:

https://ourworldindata.org

https://www.sciencemag.org/site/special/population/

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6206/234

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/are-malthus-predicted-1798-food-shortages/

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Health & Medicine: Crash Course Sociology #42

Our final unit of Crash Course Sociology is medical sociology. Today we’ll explain what it is and get an overview of the role of society in our notions of health and disease.

Crash Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. Get a free trial here: https://www.adobe.com/creativecloud/catalog/desktop.html

***

References:
Sociology by John J. Macionis, 15th edition (2014)

***

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Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark Brouwer, Nickie Miskell Jr., Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Divonne Holmes à Court, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, Robert Kunz, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Daniel Baulig, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, Tim Curwick, Evren Türkmenoğlu, Alexander Tamas, Justin Zingsheim, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, mark austin, Ruth Perez, Malcolm Callis, Ken Penttinen, Advait Shinde, Cody Carpenter, Annamaria Herrera, William McGraw, Bader AlGhamdi, Vaso, Melissa Briski, Joey Quek, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Alex S, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Montather, Jirat, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Ian Dundore, Chris Peters, Sandra Aft, Steve Marshall

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Cognitive Complexity: Blind Spots | Morgan Glover | TEDxCSUS

Memories are essential pillars of our lives. Our memories and the lessons we glean from them enable us to carry out daily tasks like driving and eating, allow us to remember our own names, and even define who we are. Losing memories can not only disrupt daily functioning, but can have devastating effects on our self-esteem, social well-being and even self-identity. Can you imagine not remembering?
Morgan Glover is a 23-year-old passionate graduate of California State University, Sacramento. Her friends describe her as dedicated, vivacious, a feminist, an intellectual, and a positive role model personifying self-empowerment. She spends her free time loving cats, fighting for women’s rights, and crushing the stigma around mental health conditions. Morgan is currently searching for the perfect fit in graduate school and program in Neuroscience with a focus in memory, learning, and/or cognition. She someday hopes to aide in solving memory problems, both for herself, and for millions of others affected by the diseases. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx

Our treatment of HIV has advanced. Why hasn’t the stigma changed? | Arik Hartmann

The treatment of HIV has significantly advanced over the past three decades — why hasn’t our perception of people with the disease advanced along with it? After being diagnosed with HIV, Arik Hartmann chose to live transparently, being open about his status, in an effort to educate people. In this candid, personal talk, he shares what it’s like to live with HIV — and calls on us to dismiss our misconceptions about the disease.

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The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more.

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