The Deadpool Salamander

MAXIMUM EFFORT!
Give us a hand and SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

Axolotls are special salamanders. Not only to they stay in their juvenile form their whole lives, they can regenerate entire limbs! Studying how they do it could change the way we treat human limb injuries.

Special thanks to the Dallas Zoo!

References: http://bit.ly/2Gkoihd

———–
FOLLOW US:

Twitter: @DrJoeHanson @okaytobesmart
Instagram: @DrJoeHanson
Merch: https://store.dftba.com/collections/its-okay-to-be-smart
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart

SEND US STUFF:

It’s Okay To Be Smart
PO Box 303356
Austin, TX 78703
USA

BOOKS WE’VE FEATURED:
http://smart-books.tumblr.com/

———–
It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Sarah Keartes
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Karl Boettcher and Derek Borsheim
Producers: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

The Empire of Mali – The Final Bloody Act – Extra History – #5

The Mali Empire comes to an end after the rise of rival powers and weakened by colonial influences, but not without leaving a legacy as a place of wealth and splendor.
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (–More below)

Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC
Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore
Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP

Thanks for participating in this week’s discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh

Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2

Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet
Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage
Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator
___________

Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net
____________

♪ Get the intro music here!
http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7
*Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H

♪ Get the outro music here!
http://bit.ly/23isQfx
*Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm

Why Do We Itch?

Scratch that itch and SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub
Check out our friends from Above the Noise: http://bit.ly/2KMBMG3
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

It’s one of the most annoying sensations our bodies can feel, but does anything feel better than when you scratch an itch? Ok, maybe *some* things. But itching and scratching are up there. How does this weird sensation work? And what is itching for?

References: http://bit.ly/2IiIqWn

———–
FOLLOW US:

Twitter: @DrJoeHanson @okaytobesmart
Instagram: @DrJoeHanson
Merch: https://store.dftba.com/collections/its-okay-to-be-smart
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart

SEND US STUFF:

It’s Okay To Be Smart
PO Box 303356
Austin, TX 78703
USA

BOOKS WE’VE FEATURED:
http://smart-books.tumblr.com/

———–
It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Kimberly McCoy
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Karl Boettcher and Derek Borsheim
Producers: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

What If You Never Forgot Anything?

To learn more about Brilliant, go to https://brilliant.org/BeSmart/ and sign up for free. First 200 people will get 20% off the annual Premium subscription.
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

How does memory work? And how does… un-memory work? Our brain does a lot of remembering and forgetting every day, so you should probably make room for som info on how it works. You’ll also get to meet some people who can’t make memories, and also never forget anything.

References: http://bit.ly/2rdFW0O
———–
FOLLOW US:

Twitter:@DrJoeHanson @okaytobesmart
Instagram: @DrJoeHanson
Merch: https://store.dftba.com/collections/its-okay-to-be-smart
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart

SEND US STUFF:

It’s Okay To Be Smart
PO Box 303356
Austin, TX 78703
USA

BOOKS WE’VE FEATURED:
http://smart-books.tumblr.com/

———–
It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Maria Ter-Mikaelian
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Karl Boettcher and Derek Borsheim
Producers: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look

The silent star of classic Westerns is a plant on a mission. It starts out green and full of life. It even grows flowers. But to reproduce effectively, it needs to turn into a rolling brown skeleton.

SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt

Sign up for our Deep Look Newsletter: https://www.kqed.org/science/deep-look-newsletter/

DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

Tumbleweeds might be the iconic props of classic Westerns. But in real life, they’re not only a noxious weed, but one that moves around. Pushed by gusts of wind, they can overwhelm entire neighborhoods, as happened recently in Victorville, California, or become a threat for drivers and an expensive nuisance for farmers.

“They tumble across highways and can cause accidents,” said Mike Pitcairn, who tracks tumbleweeds at the California Department of Food and Agriculture in Sacramento. “They pile up against fences and homes.”

And tumbleweeds aren’t even originally from the West.

Genetic tests have shown that California’s most common tumbleweed, known as Russian thistle, likely came from Ukraine, said retired plant population biologist Debra Ayres, who studied tumbleweeds at the University of California, Davis.

A U.S. Department of Agriculture employee, L. H. Dewey, wrote in 1893 that Russian thistle had arrived in the U.S. through South Dakota in flaxseed imported from Europe in the 1870s.

“It has been known in Russia many years,” Dewey wrote, “and has quite as bad a reputation in the wheat regions there as it has in the Dakotas.” This is where the name Russian thistle originates, said Ayres, although tumbleweeds aren’t really thistles.

The weed spread quickly through the United States — on rail cars, through contamination of agricultural seeds and by tumbling.
“They tumble to disperse the seeds,” said Ayres, “and thereby reduce competition.”

By bouncing and rolling, a tumbleweed spreads out tens of thousands of seeds so that they all get plenty of sunlight and space.

Tumbleweeds grow well in barren places like abandoned agricultural fields, vacant lots or the side of the road, where they can tumble unobstructed and there’s no grass, which their seedlings can’t compete with.

— Where does a tumbleweed come from?

Tumbleweeds start out as any plant, attached to the soil. Seedlings, which look like blades of grass with a bright pink stem, sprout at the end of the winter. By summer, Russian thistle plants take on their round shape and grow flowers. Inside each flower, a fruit with a single seed develops.

Other plants attract animals with tasty fruits, and get them to carry away their seeds and disperse them when they poop.

Tumbleweeds developed a different evolutionary strategy. Starting in late fall, they dry out and die, their seeds nestled between prickly leaves. Gusts of wind easily break dead tumbleweeds from their roots and they roll away, spreading their seeds as they go.

— How big do tumbleweeds grow?

Mike Pitcairn, of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, said they can grow to be more than 6 feet tall in parts of the state like the San Joaquin Valley.

— Are tumbleweeds dangerous?

Yes. They can cause traffic accidents, and they can be a fire hazard if they pile up against buildings.

—+ More great Deep Look episodes:

How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IoOJu2_FKE

This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycUNj_Hv4_Y

Upside-Down Catfish Doesn’t Care What You Think
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Above the Noise: Why Is Vaping So Popular?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9zps5LsVXs

Hot Mess: What Happened to Nuclear Power?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jEXZZDU6Gk

—+ Follow KQED Science:

KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

The Empire of Mali – Mansa Musa – Extra History – #3

Mansa Musa is remembered as the richest person in the entire history of the world, but he also worked hard to establish the empire of Mali as a political and even religious superpower. However, his excessive wealth started creating bigger problems…
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (–More below)

Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC
Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore
Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP

Thanks for participating in this week’s discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh

Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2

Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet
Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage
Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator
___________

Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net
____________

♪ Get the intro music here!
http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7
*Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H

♪ Get the outro music here!
http://bit.ly/23isQfx
*Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm

The Empire of Mali – An Empire of Trade and Faith – Extra History – #2

Seeking a meeting with the emperor of the Mali Empire, a man named Ibn Battutah journeyed across the perilous Sahara sands to discover Mali’s gold… instead, he found out how Mali blended its Islamic and African cultures.
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (–More below)

Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC
Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore
Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP

Thanks for participating in this week’s discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh

Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2

Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet
Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage
Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator
___________

Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net
____________

♪ Get the intro music here!
http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7
*Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H

♪ Get the outro music here!
http://bit.ly/23isQfx
*Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm

Yggdrasil – Nine Worlds of the Norse – Extra Mythology

Sponsored by God of War! http://bit.ly/2FBqVPH
Everything, from the giants’ home of Jotunheim, to the primeval Vanaheim, to the mortal realm of Midgard, is connected by the tree named Yggdrasil, life to all nine worlds of Norse peoples.
Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC

Thanks for participating in this week’s discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh

Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2

Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore

Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP

Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet
Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage
Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator
___________

Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net
____________

♪ Get the intro and outro music here!
http://bit.ly/23isQfx
*Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm

97% of Climate Scientists Really Do Agree

Subscribe to HOT MESS! ►► http://bit.ly/hotmess_sub
Watch the first episode: https://youtu.be/LKhGg0jDZTc
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

Do 97% of climate scientists really agree that humans are the main cause of climate change? Yep! Here’s what the 97 percent statistic *really* means.

Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub

REFERENCES: http://bit.ly/2HJHMOK

———–
FOLLOW US:

Twitter:@DrJoeHanson @okaytobesmart
Instagram: @DrJoeHanson
Merch: https://store.dftba.com/collections/its-okay-to-be-smart
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart

SEND US STUFF:

It’s Okay To Be Smart
PO Box 303356
Austin, TX 78703
USA

BOOKS WE’VE FEATURED:
http://smart-books.tumblr.com/

———–
It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Derek Borsheim
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

Upside-Down Catfish Doesn’t Care What You Think

You might suppose this catfish is sick, or just confused. But swimming belly-up actually helps it camouflage and breathe better than its right-side-up cousins.

SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt

DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

Normally, an upside-down fish in your tank is bad news. As in, it’s time for a new goldfish.

That’s because most fish have an internal air sac called a “swim bladder” that allows them to control their buoyancy and orientation. They fill the bladder with air when they want to rise, and deflate it when they want to sink. Fish without swim bladders, like sharks, have to swim constantly to keep from dropping to the bottom.

If an aquarium fish is listing to one side or flops over on its back, it often means it has swim bladder disease, a potentially life-threatening condition usually brought on parasites, overfeeding, or high nitrate levels in the water.

But for a few remarkable fish, being upside-down means everything is great.

In fact, seven species of catfish native to Central Africa live most of their lives upended. These topsy-turvy swimmers are anatomically identical to their right-side up cousins, despite having such an unusual orientation.

People’s fascination with the odd alignment of these fish goes back centuries. Studies of these quizzical fish have found a number of reasons why swimming upside down makes a lot of sense.

In an upside-down position, fish produce a lot less wave drag. That means upside-down catfish do a better job feeding on insect larvae at the waterline than their right-side up counterparts, who have to return to deeper water to rest.

There’s something else at the surface that’s even more important to a fish’s survival than food: oxygen. The gas essential to life readily dissolves from the air into the water, where it becomes concentrated in a thin layer at the waterline — right where the upside-down catfish’s mouth and gills are perfectly positioned to get it.

Scientists estimate that upside-down catfishes have been working out their survival strategy for as long at 35 million years. Besides their breathing and feeding behavior, the blotched upside-down catfish from the Congo Basin has also evolved a dark patch on its underside to make it harder to see against dark water.

That coloration is remarkable because it’s the opposite of most sea creatures, which tend to be darker on top and lighter on the bottom, a common adaptation called “countershading” that offsets the effects of sunlight.

The blotched upside-down catfish’s “reverse” countershading has earned it the scientific name negriventris, which means black-bellied.

— How many kinds of fish swim upside down?

A total of seven species in Africa swim that way. Upside-down swimming may have evolved independent in a few of the species – and at least one more time in a catfish from Asia.

— How do fish stay upright?

They have an air-filled swim bladder on the inside that that they can fill or deflate to maintain balance or to move up or down in the water column.

— What are the benefits of swimming upside down?

Upside down, a fish swims more efficiently at the waterline, where there’s more oxygen and better access to some prey.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:

https://ww2.kqed.org/2018/04/14/the-mystery-of-the-upside-down-catfish

—+ For more information:

The California Academy of Sciences has upside-down catfish in its aquarium collection: https://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/steinhart-aquarium

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning
https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII

This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards
https://youtu.be/E2unnSK7WTE

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

PBS Eons: What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k

Origin of Everything: The Origin of Race in the USA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVxAlmAPHec

—+ Follow KQED Science:

KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.