How Computers Find Naked People in Photos

Why isn’t the internet just covered in naked people? Algorithms! However, designing them to distinguish between pornography and people in skin tone clothing or swimsuits is harder than you’d think.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:

Personal interview with Ryan Compton
https://clarifai.com/blog/what-convolutional-neural-networks-see-at-when-they-see-nudity
http://cs231n.github.io/convolutional-networks/
https://blog.keras.io/how-convolutional-neural-networks-see-the-world.html
http://luthuli.cs.uiuc.edu/~daf/papers/naked.pdf
https://cs.nyu.edu/~fergus/papers/zeilerECCV2014.pdf
https://ujjwalkarn.me/2016/08/11/intuitive-explanation-convnets/
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2706&context=fss_papers
https://www.theinformation.com/articles/google-employees-have-to-waive-right-to-sue-on-pornography
https://www.theinformation.com/articles/google-drops-employee-waiver-for-pornography-suits
https://www.inc.com/minda-zetlin/google-makes-employees-sign-away-right-to-sue-over-pornography-and-lots-of-other.html
http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/brain-games/articles/brain-games-watch-this-perception-facts/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11042-012-1132-y
https://www.cs.ubc.ca/~lowe/papers/ijcv04.pdf
http://www.internethistorypodcast.com/2015/01/history-of-internet-porn/

Images:

https://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Projects/CS/vision/bsds/BSDS300/html/dataset/images/color/38092.html
https://cs.stackexchange.com/questions/73773/why-are-sift-features-significantly-different-after-simply-re-sizing-image
http://cs231n.github.io/understanding-cnn/
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/diverse-womens-legs-gm175238073-22429191
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/ear-of-a-dark-skinned-young-man-gm531694363-55491814
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Belly_button.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Artificial_neural_network.svg
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/overhead-view-of-businesspeople-working-at-desks-in-office-gm505407800-83667873
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/body-positivity-embrace-your-body-baby-gm910870306-250830259
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/3d-futuristic-wireframe-human-brain-with-world-map-gm906862420-249902740
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Michelle_Obama_official_portrait.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shad_Begum_with_Hillary_Rodham_Clinton_and_Michelle_Obama_at_2012_IWOC_Award.jpg
https://www.flickr.com/photos/bootbearwdc/3215110390
http://archive.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=63890
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Komondor_delvin.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mop-isolated-on-white-background-gm106573013-13130794
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/chihuahua-or-lion-gm666394138-121480837
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/baked-berry-muffins-in-a-tray-gm536754565-57657260
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/%E8%B1%86%E6%9F%B4%E7%8A%AC-gm805218762-130624849
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/bread-of-the-marshmallow-gm509539414-85829935
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sift_keypoints_filtering.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Typical_cnn.png

7 Organisms That Can Clean Toxic Waste

Toxic waste, by definition, is harmful to living things, but there are actually a bunch of plants, animals, fungi, and microbes that can help us clean it up!

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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Sources:

http://discovermagazine.com/2013/julyaug/13-mushrooms-clean-up-oil-spills-nuclear-meltdowns-and-human-health
https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/jp5k9x/the-plan-to-mop-up-the-worlds-largest-oil-spill-with-fungus
https://www.livescience.com/20573-fungal-cleanup-newtown-creek.html
https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2013/06/28/the-power-of-mushrooms-to-save-the-planet/
http://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/a-resilient-community/how-mushrooms-eat-oil
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/18/science/earth/18enviro.html
https://japantoday.com/category/national/sunflowers-used-to-clean-up-radiation
https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/15003-14.pdf
https://www.seeker.com/mussels-and-clams-can-clean-up-polluted-water-1768972732.html
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es5011576
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es5033212
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Triclocarban
https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180117131134.htm
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189726
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en/
http://rydberg.biology.colostate.edu/phytoremediation/2006/webpage_trez/Pennycress.htm, http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2007/10/researchers-explore-power-plants-clean-soils
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00299-011-1013-2
http://www.nature.com/news/1999/990429/full/news990429-5.html
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es070507a
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/apr/24/plastic-munching-worms-could-help-wage-war-on-waste-galleria-mellonella
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/apr/25/plastic-eating-bugs-wax-moth-caterpillars-bee
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(17)30231-2

Images:

http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo/126482861
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pleurotus_ostreatus_JPG7.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-sunflower-field-in-the-summer-bulgaria/514381204
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-field-of-sunflowers/200279231-001
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-clams-in-a-white-background/927195038
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anodonta_californiensis_FWS_19245.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corbicula_fluminea.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-hand-in-glove-holding-a-test-tube-of-clear/543560076
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ltshp.JPG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sporophyte_of_Funaria.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gebirgs-Hellerkraut.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_Tobacco_Plants_1909px.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Galleria_mellonella_dorsal.jpg
https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/138863.php

For Pacific Mole Crabs It’s Dig or Die | Deep Look

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they’re safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed.

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DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

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Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline.

Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason — to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” — and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out.

McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand.

McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots.

— What are Pacific Mole Crabs?

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves.

— What makes those holes in the sand at the beach?

When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes.

— What do birds eat in the wet beach sand?

Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:

https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/

—+ For more information:

Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow
https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/

Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings.
http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04

These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic

Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY

There’s Something Very Fishy About These Trees … | Deep Look
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s

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Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U

The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg

Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58

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KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

Why Alien Life Would be our Doom – The Great Filter

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Finding alien life on a distant planet would be amazing news – or would it? If we are not the only intelligent life in the universe, this probably means our days are numbered and doom is certain.

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Why Alien Life Would be our Doom – The Great Filter

Bioprecipitation: How Bacteria Makes Snow

Raindrops and snowflakes generally start to form around something else in the air, like a speck of dust, but sometimes that something else is bacteria.

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Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:

https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-are-clouds-k4.html
http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080228/full/news.2008.632.html
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5867/1214
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-13523502
http://www.montana.edu/news/15232/rocky-mountain-storms-lead-to-new-findings-about-hailstones
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JD022004/abstract
https://www.livescience.com/14299-bacteria-create-rain-snow-hail.html
https://www.livescience.com/2333-earth-clouds-alive-bacteria.html
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12447/abstract
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/video-these-microbes-are-key-making-artificial-snow

Images:

http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-clouds-in-the-sky/128951584
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hagelkorn_mit_Anlagerungsschichten.jpg
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/11685
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pseudomonas_syringae_cultures.jpg