Thespis, Athens, and The Origins of Greek Drama: Crash Course Theater #2

This week on Crash Course Theater, Mike is acting like theater started in Greece. Well, for the western theater, this is true. The earliest recorded drama in the west arose in Athen, and these early plays grew out or religious ritual. Namely, they evolved from the worship of Dionysus, god of wine, fertility, and RITUAL MADNESS. That’s right. I said RITUAL MADNESS

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What If We Were All Optimists?

Surprise! You’re more optimistic than you think.
PBS Digital Studios is grateful to Bill and Melinda Gates for their support. If you’d like to take a look at the 2018 Annual Letter, you can check it out here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j

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BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

This episode//
Written by Bahar Gholipour
Produced, Edited and Hosted by Vanessa Hill
Filming by Dominique Taylor
Animations by Jade Tan-Holmes

REFERENCES 📚
Sharot, T. (2011). The optimism bias. Current biology, 21(23), R941-R945. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982211011912

Strunk, D. R., Lopez, H., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2006). Depressive symptoms are associated with unrealistic negative predictions of future life events. Behaviour research and therapy, 44(6), 861-882. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796705001476

Sharot, T., Korn, C. W., & Dolan, R. J. (2011). How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality. Nature neuroscience, 14(11), 1475. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204264/

Odds of dying: http://www.nsc.org/learn/safety-knowledge/Pages/injury-facts-chart.aspx and http://driveithome.org/201801-andy-pilgrim-distracted-driving

Defusing the Population Bomb

Thank you to Bill and Melinda Gates for supporting PBS Digital Studios. If you’d like to take a look at the 2018 Annual Letter, you can check it out here http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j
↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

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Is overpopulation real? Is Earth filling up with too many humans? How many people can Earth hold, anyway? As our species approaches 8 billion, human overpopulation is a major concern for many people. How can we reduce poverty and our impact on the environment? Do we need a forced one-child policy or something? Maybe not, because when we look at the science and history, populations seem to control themselves. This week we look at all these questions and more.

READ MORE:

https://ourworldindata.org

https://www.sciencemag.org/site/special/population/

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6206/234

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/are-malthus-predicted-1798-food-shortages/

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It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Karl Boettcher
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

For Pacific Mole Crabs It’s Dig or Die | Deep Look

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they’re safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed.

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DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

* NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! *

Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline.

Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason — to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” — and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out.

McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand.

McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots.

— What are Pacific Mole Crabs?

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves.

— What makes those holes in the sand at the beach?

When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes.

— What do birds eat in the wet beach sand?

Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in.

—+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:

https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/

—+ For more information:

Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow
https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/

Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings.
http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04

These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic

Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY

There’s Something Very Fishy About These Trees … | Deep Look
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U

The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg

Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58

—+ Follow KQED Science

KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

Tuatara All The Way Down – Face To Face With A Living Fossil!

Your now is not your forever (unless you’re a tuatara)
Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub
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Special thanks to John Green! And to Amber Faasen and the Dallas Zoo herpetarium team!

During the 2017 Project For Awesome livestream, I promised I’d make a tuatara video if we hit our fundraising goal, and I’m a man of my word! Little did I know I’d get to meet a tuatara and learn things about a 200 million year old branch of life that would blow my mind. Get ready to meet the chillest reptile, weird living fossil, and star of Turtles All The Way Down… the tuatara.

3D tuatara skull animation courtesy of Digimorph: http://www.digimorph.org/

READ MORE:
“Turtles All The Way Down” by John Green: http://amzn.to/2GU2c6J

“Horseshoe Crabs and Velvet Worms: The Story of the Animals and Plants That Time Has Left Behind” by Richard Fortey http://amzn.to/2EpcfT2

Hay, J. M., Subramanian, S., Millar, C. D., Mohandesan, E., & Lambert, D. M. (2008). Rapid molecular evolution in a living fossil. Trends in Genetics, 24(3), 106-109.

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FOLLOW US:

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Tumblr: http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com
Instagram: @DrJoeHanson

———–

It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Creative Director: David Schulte
Editor/animator: Derek Borsheim
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

How Remixes Hijack Your Brain

Get VIDEOCRACY 👉 http://amzn.to/2qrxQ7q
More about the book (my video 🙃) https://youtu.be/xwlwNzLOGmA

YouTube, as a platform for creative expression, has inspired a new form of modern creativity. In this video essay, I explore how the remix, a product of this participatory creativity, hijacks your brain. Why do we love watching things we’ve probably already seen be reproduced in new ways?

Written, edited and produced by Vanessa Hill. Thanks to Kevin Allocca for his help with this video.

Say hello: https://twitter.com/nessyhill | https://instagram.com/nessyhill
SUBSCRIBE to BrainCraft! http://ow.ly/rt5IE
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BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

FURTHER READING 📚
Videocracy: How YouTube is Changing the World https://kevinallocca.com/videocracy
Youth on YouTube as Smart Swarms: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00043125.2014.11519263?journalCode=uare20
Mashup Culture: https://books.google.com/books?id=tHQB-kLxlZ8C&source=gbs_book_other_versions
Secrets of Supercuts | Slate: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/the_browser/2012/11/how_to_make_a_supercut_secrets_of_the_youtube_collage_form_revealed.html
Handbook of Creativity https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/11443_01_Henry_Ch01.pdf
Communicating creativity on YouTube: what and for whom?
https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/1920104/file/6761597.pdf

VIDEOS 📽
Classics
Bob Ross Remixed | Happy Little Clouds | PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLO7tCdBVrA
Reading Rainbow Remixed | In Your Imagination | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/-FD1K8OvVCs
Mister Rogers Remixed | Garden of Your Mind | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/OFzXaFbxDcM
Julia Child Remixed | Keep On Cooking | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/80ZrUI7RNfI
Wishery | Pogo https://youtu.be/qs1bG6BIYlo
Time Machine | Pogo & Skye https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtr5q6dn7CA
Muppet Mash | Pogo https://youtu.be/pwvflO3QKrI
Kutiman, GIVE IT UP https://youtu.be/WoHxoz_0ykI
DOUBLE RAINBOW SONG!! https://youtu.be/MX0D4oZwCsA
160 Greatest Arnold Schwarzenegger Quotes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDxn0Xfqkgw

On Remixes
Why videos go viral | Kevin Allocca https://youtu.be/BpxVIwCbBK0
Are YouTubers Revolutionizing Entertainment? | Off Book | PBS Digital Studios https://youtu.be/H3-YxxqSN5c
Henry Jenkins on Participatory Culture https://youtu.be/1gPm-c1wRsQ
Why Do We Experience Nostalgia? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dJw9TN0hoE
I Could Do That | The Art Assignment https://youtu.be/67EKAIY43kg

All Star
Smash Mouth – All Star https://youtu.be/L_jWHffIx5E
All Star but it’s played on two calculators https://youtu.be/3rfdYej30Dw
VILLAGE PEOPLE – Y.M.C.A. VOCAL COVER 2016 (OFFICIAL) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTwxtYin1p0
ADELE – HELLO VOCAL COVER 2016 (OFFICIAL) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uef0Qr56mKo
Smashmouth Recreated From Windows XP Sounds https://youtu.be/ahXQ7e8w7mQ

Shia
Shia LaBeouf “Just Do It” Motivational Speech (Original Video by LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXsQAXx_ao0
Shia LaBeouf TED Talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=os6U77Hhm_s
I’m sorry Shia, I’m afraid I can’t do that https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=loeZ-z9ct0Q
Shiawalker Inspirational https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxCCp3nbCEk
Apple Watch Shia LaBeouf Edition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RZC7iBEAsk
Just Do It! ft. Auto-tuned Shia LaBeouf (Motivational Music Video) ORIGINAL
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLOpX2cu-4g&feature=youtu.be&t=28s
This Is Sparta Shia LaBeouf – JUST DO IT https://youtu.be/XW74pHNxkaM
Damn It Shia https://youtu.be/k_e67Wwumz8
Shia LaBeouf motivates the Death Eaters [Harry Potter] https://youtu.be/CZgRTDApBks
+1 Shia every 3 seconds https://youtu.be/oTz93Y-qeq0
JUST DO IT!!! ft. Shia LaBeouf – Songify This https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UhRXn2NRiWI

Political
Gaddafi-Zenga Song-No girl edit version (Noy Alooshe Remix) https://youtu.be/6GcUutnU2gk
“Zenga” Clip about Gaddafi https://youtu.be/XeuZiFRzb4k
BRITAIN’S NEW LEADER RAPS LIKE A BOSS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xv7Jd94bnOI
Angela Merkel Sings Yung Hurn – Nein https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egZzDwJI-Bg
Cassetteboy – Cameron’s Conference Rap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YBumQHPAeU
Tony Abbott: “NO No NO” https://youtu.be/fi-q0ALVzPg
Barack Obama Singing Call Me Maybe by Carly Rae Jepsen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hX1YVzdnpEc&feature=youtu.be&t=34s
236.com: Synchronized Presidential Debating https://youtu.be/wfd5g8Y_Jqo

Supercuts
Sorkinisms – A Supercut https://youtu.be/S78RzZr3IwI
Alex Trebek is a Savage | Super Deluxe Super Cuts https://youtu.be/b8NCjz6ghrU
I’m Not Here to Make Friends! https://youtu.be/w536Alnon24

Humour
Why Do We Laugh? | Sci Show https://youtu.be/Ov-kXSS1_yc
Why Do We Laugh? | It’s Okay to be Smart https://youtu.be/9WzVMZunzaM

Can you see this type of light?

Polarized light is an unusual form of light. Can humans see when light is polarized?
To learn more about Brilliant, go to https://brilliant.org/PhysicsGirl

Subscribe to physics girl: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=physicswoman

Check out the other YouTubers in this video!
Léo Grasset (Dirty Biology)
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtqICqGbPSbTN09K1_7VZ3Q
William Osman
https://www.youtube.com/WilliamOsman
Allen Pan
https://www.youtube.com/SufficientlyAdvanced

CREDITS
Creator: Dianna Cowern
Editing: Jabril Ashe
Animations: Kyle Norby
Research: Sophia Chen
Adviser: Dan Walsh

Thanks to Kyle Kitzmiller and Bill Herrington!

http://physicsgirl.org/
http://twitter.com/thephysicsgirl
http://facebook.com/thephysicsgirl
http://instagram.com/thephysicsgirl

PO Box 9281
San Diego, CA 92169

More instructions for this project:
https://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/polarized-light-mosaic

Resources:
https://www.ptonline.com/articles/stress-diagnose-it-before-it-ruins-your-parts

The Most Extreme Life Forms On Earth… And Beyond?

Life, uh… finds a way
Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub
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What have we learned from exploring Earth’s harshest locations? That pretty everywhere we look for life, we find it. From smoking hot hydrothermal vents to icy deserts, up in clouds and inside rocks, extremophiles have found a way to survive. These survivors and adapters are not only teaching us about life on Earth, but expanding the possibilities of where life can exist elsewhere.

READ MORE:

Horikoshi, K., Antranikian, G., Bull, A. T., Robb, F. T., & Stetter, K. O. (Eds.). (2010). Extremophiles handbook. Springer Science & Business Media.

Schulze-Makuch, D., Airo, A., & Schirmack, J. (2017). The Adaptability of Life on Earth and the Diversity of Planetary Habitats. Frontiers in microbiology, 8, 2011.

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FOLLOW US:

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Instagram: @DrJoeHanson

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It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Shaena Montanari, Ph.D.
Producer/editor/animator: Jordan Husmann
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com

How to Think Like Einstein

The Neuroscience of Creativity: https://youtu.be/9CwyqtwtMHM
Check out the new channel, Origin of Everything: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiB8h9jD2Mlxx96ZFnGDSJw

ORDER BRAINCRAFT MERCH! 🧠https://store.dftba.com/collections/braincraft
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It seems like some people have so many great ideas –  like Albert Einstein, who as well as changing everything we know about the whole of space and time, also took a stab at fashion. Rest assured there are ways that the rest of us can be more creative, too. Following on from the last episode on the Neuroscience of Creativity, we explore some practical tips for boosting your creativity and generating more great ideas.

NEW VIDEO! The Neuroscience of Creativity: https://youtu.be/9CwyqtwtMHM
From the BrainCraft archive | The Secret to Creativity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_Y-T_guM1I

My Twitter https://twitter.com/nessyhill | Instagram https://instagram.com/nessyhill

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

This episode was written by Bahar Gholipour and hosted/produced/animated by Vanessa Hill.

REFERENCES 📚
Eagleman, D., & Brandt, A. (2017). The Runaway Species: How human creativity remakes the world. Catapult.

Durante, D., & Dunson, D. B. (2018). Bayesian inference and testing of group differences in brain networks. Bayesian Analysis, 13(1), 29-58.
https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdfview_1/euclid.ba/1479179031

Li, W., Yang, J., Zhang, Q., Li, G., & Qiu, J. (2016). The Association between Resting Functional Connectivity and Visual Creativity. Scientific reports, 6.
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep25395

Bendetowicz, D., Urbanski, M., Aichelburg, C., Levy, R., & Volle, E. (2017). Brain morphometry predicts individual creative potential and the ability to combine remote ideas. Cortex, 86, 216-229.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010945216303161?via%3Dihub

This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat | Deep Look

With rows of Dr. Seuss-like flowers hidden deep inside, the corpse flower plays dead to lure some unusual pollinators.

SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt

DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

* NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! *

For a plant that emits an overpowering stench of rotting carcass, you’d think the corpse flower would have a PR problem.

But it’s quite the opposite: Anytime a corpse flower opens up at a botanical garden somewhere in the world visitors flock to catch a whiff and get a glimpse of the giant plant, which can grow up to 10 feet tall when it blooms and generally only does so every two to 10 years.

A corpse flower’s whole survival strategy is based on deception. It’s not a flower and it’s not a rotting dead animal, but it mimics both. Pollination remains out of sight, deep within the plant. KQED’s Deep Look staff was able to film inside a corpse flower, revealing the rarely-seen moment when the plant’s male flowers release glistening strings of pollen.

It’s not that the corpse flower is the only plant to attract pollinators like flies and beetles by putting out bad smells. Nor is it the only one that produces male and female flowers at the same time.

“The fact that it does all of this at this outsized scale – all of this together – is what’s so unique about it, biologically,” said Pati Vitt, senior scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden.

When a titan arum is ready to flower, a stalk starts to grow out of the soil. Once it has reached four to 10 feet, a red “skirt” unfurls. Though it has the appearance of a petal, it’s really a modified leaf called a spathe that looks like a raw steak.

The yellow stalk underneath is called the spadix and it gives the plant its scientific name, Amorphophallus titanum, or roughly “giant deformed phallus.”

In its native Sumatra, the corpse flower opens for only 24 hours. In captivity, it often lasts longer. With just a day to reproduce, the stakes are high.

— How many chemicals make up the smell of the corpse flower?
More than 30 chemicals make up the scent of the corpse flower, according to the 2017 paper “Studies on the floral anatomy and scent chemistry of titan arum” by researchers at the University of Mississippi, University of Florida, Gainsville, and Anadolu University in Turkey:
http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-17-41-1/bot-41-1-6-1604-34.pdf

Some of the chemicals have a pleasant scent. But mostly, the corpse flower at first smells like funky cheese and rotting garlic, as a result of sulphur-smelling compounds. Hours later, the stink changes to what Vanessa Handley, at the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley describes as “dead rat in the walls of your house.”

—+ Read the entire article:
https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/01/23/this-giant-plant-looks-like-raw-meat-and-smells-like-dead-rat/

—+ For more information:
Great illustration on the lifecycle of the corpse flower by the Chicago Botanic Garden:
https://www.chicagobotanic.org/titan/faq

University of California Davis Botanical Conservatory:
http://greenhouse.ucdavis.edu/conservatory/

—+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6a3Q5DzeBM

—+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios!

It’s Okay To Be Smart: How to Figure Out the Day of the Week For Any Date Ever
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=714LTMNJy5M

Above The Noise: Can Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Help Fight Disease?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CB_h7aheAEM

—+ Follow KQED Science:
KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

—+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.