A Blood Test for Brain Damage

This week the FDA approves the first ever blood test for diagnosing concussions, and a group of scientists develop a neural network that could save you a trip to the eye doctor.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm596531.htm
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/14/health/concussion-fda-bloodtest.html
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fda-okays-first-concussion-blood-test-but-some-experts-are-wary/
https://gizmodo.com/the-fda-has-approved-the-first-blood-test-for-concussio-1823050720
https://qz.com/1197274/a-blood-test-could-be-used-to-monitor-nfl-players-brains-if-only-we-would-invent-it/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003664/
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https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html
https://www.asnr.org/patientinfo/conditions/tbi.shtml
https://www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationEmittingProductsandProcedures/MedicalImaging/MedicalX-Rays/ucm115329.htm
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/simple-blood-tests-for-rapid-concussion-diagnosis/
https://qbi.uq.edu.au/brain-basics/brain/brain-physiology/types-glia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601141/
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/540401/two-companies-close-in-on-a-concussion-blood-test/
http://banyanbio.com/~groverto/technology/publications.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27018834
https://www.bu.edu/cte/about/frequently-asked-questions/

https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2018-02/uoc–aiq021518.php
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.02.010
https://nei.nih.gov/health/macular-edema/fact_sheet
http://ruder.io/transfer-learning/
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-10590-1_53
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/10/09/why-are-doctors-so-slow-to-learn/#7980f1a06e19

How We Solved the Mystery of Pulsating Auroras

Astronomers have finally observed what causes pulsating auroras, and our estimates of the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy have shrunk.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-02/icfr-mwt021318.php
https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/icrar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/13131736/m31-escape-velocity.pdf

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-02/uot-doa020818.php
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25505
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/pulsating-aurora-the-pas-1.4534912
https://www.sciencealert.com/pulsating-aurora-northern-lights-electron-microbursts
http://www.newsweek.com/mysterious-pulsating-auroras-caused-showers-electrons-808973
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/nasa-measuring-the-pulsating-aurora

Images:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/cars10s/7191574910/
https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/BeyondThePhotography/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/nasa-measuring-the-pulsating-aurora
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jupiter_and_its_shrunken_Great_Red_Spot.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saturn_during_Equinox.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Star_cluster_in_the_Andromeda_galaxy.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:M31_09-01-2011.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andromeda_galaxy_2.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andromeda_galaxy_Ssc2005-20a1.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andromeda_Galaxy_(with_h-alpha).jpg

The Key to an Artificial Heart … and Open-Heart Surgery

Scientists have been trying to pull blood out of the body and put it back in again since the early 1800s, but bypass machines haven’t been easy to get right.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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Sources:

https://books.google.com/books?id=UPUCDAAAQBAJ&lpg=PA119&dq=vitreous%20fluid%20center%20gel%20edges&pg=PA119#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/974/3/CSN_CH3.pdf
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/veterinary-science-and-veterinary-medicine/vitreous-humour
https://www.jci.org/articles/view/10706/pdf
https://nei.nih.gov/health/floaters/floaters
https://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/eye-vitreous-and-aqueous-humor#seoBlock
http://www.aclm.org.uk/index.php?url=04_FAQs/default.php&Q=3
https://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/cornea

Images:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eye-diagram_bg.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FundusPhotoAntha.jpg

Are Digital Screens Actually Bad For Kids?

From TVs to tablets, screens are ubiquitous in our modern society. What effect does that have on childhood development?

Hosted by: Brit Garner
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Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821208/
http://www.idra.org/images/stories/Computers%20and%20Young%20Children_eng.pdf
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074756321400048X
https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/american-academy-of-pediatrics-announces-new-recommendations-for-childrens-media-use.aspx
https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Pages/Media-and-Children.aspx
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/5/e20162593
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271946256_Extending_the_Global_Dialogue_About_Media_Technology_Screen_Time_and_Young_Children
http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/PIAGET/sms.HTML
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936722/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473707

How Pregnancy Is Like Growing an Alien Inside You

Pregnancy is quite a feat. The embryo manages to develop, get food, and get rid of their waste, all while staying under the radar of their parent’s immune system.

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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Sources:
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-12/cp-ic121317.php
https://aeon.co/essays/why-pregnancy-is-a-biological-war-between-mother-and-baby
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100814-125620 forgotten organ
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28712140 reimagining parasite
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928162/ physiological changes
http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/relaxin/
http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/normal-pregnancy/stages-of-development-of-the-fetus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154715/ vascular changes speech
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200776/ nutrient
http://www.hapmd.com/home/hapmdcom/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/sub/articulos-e-imagenes/20110615_endocrinology_of_pregnancy_and_fetoplacental_unit.pdf
http://www.cell.com/trends/immunology/fulltext/S1471-4906(17)30023-6 hla-g
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/transport.html
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/408910_2
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139600/ treg
http://blogs.plos.org/dnascience/2013/10/03/when-does-a-human-life-begins-17-timepoints/
http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/approach-to-the-pregnant-woman-and-prenatal-care/physiology-of-pregnancy
https://www.livescience.com/50877-regnancy-body-changes.html
https://www.livescience.com/16937-body-pregnancy.html
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system/fetal-circulation/v/meet-the-placenta
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7295162_Trowsdale_J_Betz_AGMother‘s_little_helpers_mechanisms_of_maternal-fetal_tolerance_Nat_Immunol_7241-246
https://f1000research.com/articles/6-1216/v1
https://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v17/n8/full/nri.2017.38.html
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143400417301790
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53254/ placental stats
http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html
http://jme.endocrinology-journals.org/content/60/1/R23.full
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.201500059/full microchimerism
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1007/s12522-011-0102-9/full remodeling
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472320/
https://books.google.com/books?id=s53ImjKyJxIC&pg=PA266
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Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Placenta.svg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-normal-pregnant-female-anatomy/530510038
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-from-ovulation-to-fertilization/646723326
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastocyst#/media/File:Blastocyst_English.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastocyst#/media/File:Human_blastocyst.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-3d-illustration-early-stage-embryo-stem-cell/904268718/popup
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-count-dracula/514459808
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-blood-vessels/155597214/popup?sq=blood%20vessels/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-virus-and-antibodies/639848808
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-red-blood-cells-in-vein/637422184/popup?sq=blood/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-human-egg-and-womb/479892204/popup?sq=embryos/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-how-does-insulin-work-illustrated/904816340/popup?sq=insulin/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-top-view-of-white-sugar-cubes-on-turquoise/833229890
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Healthy_Human_T_Cell.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-macrophage-binding-with-t-cell/629496602
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-t-cells/628064556
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-portrait-of-a-three-generation-family/200280711-001

Could Humans Ever Breathe Water?

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could breathe underwater? But is it even possible?

Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=2087
https://www.livescience.com/32196-why-cant-human-beings-breathe-underwater.html
https://gizmodo.com/can-humans-breathe-liquid-1156138301
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258983/
http://www.f2chemicals.com/pdf/technical/Gas%20solubility.pdf
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/drug-unapproved-by-fda-saves-infants-life/
https://dnr.mo.gov/env/esp/wqm/DOSaturationTable.htm
http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality/dissolved-oxygen/
http://rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/dl/QA/43.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191624/

How Do We Know the Age of the Universe?

To support SciShow Space and learn more about Brilliant, go to https://brilliant.org/scishowspace/. Try the lesson in this video for free at https://brilliant.org/SciShowSpaceCosmology/!

What kinds of tools do astronomers use to calculate the age of the universe, and how can they determine the speed of its expansion?

Hosted by: Caitlin Hofmeister
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Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلط الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/xdf.html
https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=atomic+spectrum+of+hydrogen
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1992ARA%26A..30..359B&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1958ApJ…127..513S&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~dfabricant/huchra/hubble/
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.aa.33.090195.002545

Images:

http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-rustic-southern-american-comfort-food-chicken/585506034
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dark_Energy.jpg
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/hst_img_20080520.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Asymmetric_Ashes_(artist%27s_impression).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ilc_9yr_moll4096.png
http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2016/06/A_mysterious_hermit

3 Things Fish Shouldn’t Be Able to Do

When you think of animals with awesome abilities, fish usually aren’t the first thing that come to mind, but there are a few species that have taken their adaptations to the extreme!

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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Sources:

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2110595655/2083227706/mmc2.mp4
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00361900
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(06)01013-X
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(14)00922-1?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982214009221%3Fshowall%3Dtrue
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/early/2017/01/11/jeb.146936.full.pdf
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep27523
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/071106-tree-fish.html
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/219/12/1860.full.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371909
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21029016
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501097/
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fishes-use-problem-solving-and-invent-tools/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00338-011-0790-y
https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt3qg3h7pd/qt3qg3h7pd.pdf
https://www.amazon.ca/What-Fish-Knows-Underwater-Cousins/dp/0374288216

Does Psychotherapy Work?

You might’ve heard people talking about how awesome psychotherapy can be, but it is actually effective?

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/psychotherapy
http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/types-mental-health-professionals
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240781
https://www.talkspace.com/blog/2016/10/why-you-might-feel-bad-or-worse-after-therapy/
https://welldoing.org/article/in-therapy-why-you-might-feel-worse-before-you-feel-better
https://contextualscience.org/system/files/Chawla(2007).pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232572077_Experiential_avoidance_and_behavioral_disorders_A_functional_dimensional_approach_to_diagnosis_and_treatment
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201502/psychotherapy-works-not-everyone
http://www.compassionfatigue.org/pages/compassionfatigue.html
https://digest.bps.org.uk/2015/02/27/what-do-clients-think-of-psychotherapy-that-doesnt-work/
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/were-only-human/why-psychotherapy-appears-to-work-even-when-it-doesnt.html
http://www.statisticshowto.com/what-is-bias/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118818/
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/matter-personality/201212/why-psychotherapy-efficacy-studies-are-nearly-impossible
https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/dropping-out-of-psychotherapy
https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/the-role-of-anecdotes-in-science-based-medicine/
https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/spontaneous-remission-occurs-in-majority-of-depression-cases-0913131
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x/asset/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x.pdf?v=1&t=jc8qix1h&s=9ab9be0157574cf74dcc416dbacbb8c51ceb8cb0
https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk3/1980/8020/802005.PDF
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a7b7/3212b3edcfc4ba62ebc03920e92ad5c6f7e3.pdf
https://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
http://psychology.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.001.0001/acrefore-9780190236557-e-68?print=pdf

SciShow Quiz Show: When Science Meets Pop Culture

Nick Jenkins of Crash Course faces off against Hank Green of SciShow in this collision of science and nerdy pop-culture references.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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Sources:

Roman Concrete
https://unews.utah.edu/roman-concrete/
https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/msa/ammin/article/102/7/1435/353606/Phillipsite-and-Al-tobermorite-mineral-cements
http://www.uobabylon.edu.iq/eprints/publication_1_302_1586.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caesarea_Concrete_Bath.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rome-Pantheon-Interieur1.jpg

Lycurgus Cup

https://www.theguardian.com/nanotechnology-world/nanotechnology-is-ancient-history
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03215599
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/this-1600-year-old-goblet-shows-that-the-romans-were-nanotechnology-pioneers-787224/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brit_Mus_13sept10_brooches_etc_044.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lycurgus_Cup_red_BM_MME1958.12-2.1.jpg

Tribbles
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(00)00502-9
http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/tribbls1.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Normal_Cell_Life_Cycle.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitosis_Stages.svg

Tinman
http://dev.biologists.org/content/118/3/719.long
http://dev.biologists.org/content/121/11/3889.long
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9621430

Dracula
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(00)00653-9.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC52960/

Smaug
http://www.cell.com/molecular-cell/fulltext/S1097-2765(00)80368-8?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS1097276500803688%3Fshowall%3Dtrue
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7515724

Midichlorians Bacteria
https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/24528/title/Use-the-force–bacteria/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108374