8 Survival Myths That Will Definitely Make Things Worse

You might think you know how to survive if you end up stranded in the wild, but those tips you read on the internet might just make things worse!

Some tips seem too good to be true, and they are. Others are ingrained enough to be common knowledge, except they’re wrong.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/desert-cloudscape-gm482377760-69992289
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/snowy-empty-driving-road-in-the-winter-iceland-gm657042568-119691245

Eating snow
http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=1619
https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/01/23/463959512/so-you-want-to-eat-snow-is-it-safe-we-asked-scientists
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/winter-scene-thaw-gm628875450-111753311

Cactus juice
https://www.britannica.com/story/can-you-drink-water-from-a-cactus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC148931/
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jsfa.2740350410
https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+1202
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/photosynthesis-in-plants/photorespiration–c3-c4-cam-plants/a/c3-c4-and-cam-plants-agriculture
https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/calcium-oxalate-stone
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ferocactus_wislizeni_(6541006057).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Prickly_Pear_Closeup.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/field-of-cactus-gm145997810-6138805

Urine and blood
http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2008/05/the_yellow_liquid_diet.html
https://www.livescience.com/15899-drinking-blood-safe.html
https://www.hemochromatosis.org/#overview
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/beer-with-forth-gm183243456-14730136
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/blood-dripping-gm157509239-10684671

Moss
http://mentalfloss.com/article/56243/does-moss-really-only-grow-north-side-trees
http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=2975
http://projects.ncsu.edu/project/bio181de/Lab/plant_phylogeny/non-vascular.html
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/strong-roots-of-old-tree-covered-with-green-moss-close-up-gm866600452-144131965
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/the-gree-hell-mossy-roots-and-trunks-in-deep-forest-gm912425688-251189812

Alcohol
http://mentalfloss.com/article/32256/does-drinking-alcohol-really-keep-you-warm-when-its-cold-out
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2318781
https://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-view-of-the-bottle-in-ice-gm133897014-18274727
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-woman-drinking-a-tea-on-the-city-gm628664428-111676911

Frostbite
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/926249-overview#a3
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothermia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352688
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/man-with-a-tan-beanie-and-red-scarf-trying-to-warm-up-gm142527503-17874723

Snakebite
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra013477
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/pathophysiological-and-pharmacological-effects-of-snake-venom-components-molecular-targets-2161-0495.1000-190.php?aid=25709
http://www.umich.edu/~elements/fogler&gurmen/html/web_mod/cobra/avenom.htm
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/venomous-snake-bites-mans-finger-gm939901378-256963981
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/isolated-diamondback-rattlesnake-gm91032724-5881298

Jellyfish
https://www.britannica.com/science/nematocyst#ref1013437
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/9/3/105/htm?xid=PS_smithsonian
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/how-fix-jellyfish-sting-180963582/
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whats-behind-that-jellyfish-sting-2844876/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728541/
https://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/14/health/14real.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773479/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Moon_jellyfish_at_Gota_Sagher.JPG
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/stingers-gm172300393-3544362

Thumbnail:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/caveman-gm157533887-11308958

If There’s Acid Rain, Is There Basic Rain?

You’ve probably heard of acid rain: rain that’s more acidic than normal because of pollution in the atmosphere. But, if rain can become more acidic, shouldn’t it also be able to become more basic?

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

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Sources:
https://smile.amazon.com/Merchants-Doubt-Handful-Scientists-Obscured/dp/1608193942/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969700003806
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es00167a014
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-0810-5_128
https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2001JD001332
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0187623614710999
http://news.gallup.com/poll/1615/environment.aspx
https://www.epa.gov/acidrain/what-acid-rain
http://homepages.gac.edu/~anienow/CHE-102/Lectures/Chapter%206.pdf
http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/196buildings.html
https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/atmospheric/acid-rain1.htm
https://dnr.wi.gov/regulations/labcert/documents/training/Basics-GenChem.pdf
http://homepages.gac.edu/~anienow/CHE-102/Lectures/Chapter%206.pdf
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac60256a047
http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/184ph.html
https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/neutralizing-rain-after-much-success-battle-against-acid-rain-challenges-remain
https://whatsyourimpact.org/greenhouse-gases/nitrous-oxide-emissions
https://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/SO2poster_508.pdf
http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200801_jan08/paper_02.pdf
https://ceoas.oregonstate.edu/people/files/jones/lajtha_jones_biogeochem_13.pdf
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/16742834.2010.11446852
https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2004110582A2
https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-254/420-254.html
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07438148709354797
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/sum.12270

Scientists Just Transferred Memories… Between Sea Slugs

Scientists were able to transfer a specific memory from one sea slug to another! And research suggests that focusing on your breathing could help you focus on other things as well!

Thumbnail Credit: Bédécarrats et al., eNeuro (2018)

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:
https://doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0038-18.2018
https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2018-05/sfn-mtb050818.php
http://www.molluscs.at/gastropoda/index.html?/gastropoda/morphology/nervous_system.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997122
https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/15/suppl_1/R17/632705
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521964/
http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/23/10/587.full
http://dev.biologists.org/content/139/15/2792?ijkey=1cce4c48adde1dc432e78b40297eef743fbb52e3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5310836/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/psyp.13091
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-05/tcd-tym051018.php
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929404/

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_methylation.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_methylation.png

We Detected Water Plumes on Europa… 20 Years Ago

Researchers found surprising new evidence hiding in data captured back in 1997, and we’ve discovered stars forming in a distant galaxy as early as 250 million years after the Big Bang.

Hosted by: Caitlin Hofmeister

For special, curated artifacts of this universe, check out https://scishowfinds.com/
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Sources:

https://press.nature.com/wp-content/uploads/files/2018/05/41550_2018_450_OnlinePDF.pdf
https://gizmodo.com/congressman-divulges-unreleased-study-to-win-support-fo-1825915811?rev=1525963100304
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aa67f8/pdf
https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-europa-water-vapor/

https://press.nature.com/wp-content/uploads/files/2018/05/41586_2018_117_OnlinePDF_300aHashimoto.pdf

Images:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Galileo_probe_-_artistic_impression_-_AC89-0146-3.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PIA17202_-_Approaching_Enceladus.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Enceladus_Earth_Moon_Comparison.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Europa,_Earth_%26_Moon_size_comparison.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PIA19058-SaturnMoon-Enceladus-PossibleHydrothermalActivity-ArtistConcept-20150311.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Europa-moon.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JUNO_-_PIA13746.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Europa_Mission_Spacecraft_-_Artist%27s_Rendering.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fountains_of_Enceladus_PIA07758.jpg
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/116/blocks-in-the-europan-crust-provide-more-evidence-of-subterranean-ocean/?category=missions_galileo
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/203/reddish-bands-on-europa/?category=missions_galileo
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12909
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/10656
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:MACS1149-JD1#/media/File:Annotated_montage_-_galaxy_cluster_MACS_J1149%2B2223_and_high-z_galaxy_MACS1149-JD_01.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3-ALMA-antennas-interferometry.jpg
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/10135
http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2012/05/Artist_s_impression_of_JUICE

What is Engineering?: Crash Course Engineering #1

In our first episode of Crash Course Engineering, Shini explains what engineering is, and gives a brief overview of its four main branches (civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical) as well as a look at some of the other fields of engineering.

Crash Course Engineering is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV

***

RESOURCES:
https://www.britannica.com/technology/engineering
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/engineer
http://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/23915
https://www.britannica.com/technology/military-engineering
https://www.britannica.com/technology/civil-engineering
https://www.bls.gov/ooh/architecture-and-engineering/mechanical-engineers.htm
http://me.columbia.edu/what-mechanical-engineering
https://www.britannica.com/technology/history-of-technology/The-Industrial-Revolution-1750-1900
https://www.livescience.com/44186-who-invented-the-steam-engine.html
https://www.britannica.com/technology/steam-engine
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/college-to-career/chemistry-careers/chemical-engineering.html
https://www.livescience.com/47499-what-is-engineering.html
https://www.livescience.com/48134-what-is-chemical-engineering.html
https://www.livescience.com/47702-aerospace-engineering.html
https://www.livescience.com/47749-nuclear-engineering.html
https://www.livescience.com/48001-biomedical-engineering.html
http://time.com/money/4920319/the-1-college-major-that-will-earn-you-the-most-right-out-of-college/
https://www.forbes.com/sites/karstenstrauss/2017/06/28/college-degrees-with-the-highest-and-lowest-starting-salaries-in-2017/#4a0837cb2343
“The Story of Engineering” by James Kip Finch. Anchor Books, 1960.

***

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Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark Brouwer, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Divonne Holmes à Court, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, Tim Curwick, Evren Türkmenoğlu, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, mark austin, Ruth Perez, Malcolm Callis, Ken Penttinen, Advait Shinde, Cody Carpenter, Annamaria Herrera, William McGraw, Bader AlGhamdi, Vaso, Melissa Briski, Joey Quek, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Alex S, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Montather, Jirat, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Ian Dundore, Chris Peters, Sandra Aft, Steve Marshall

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How Machines the Size of Molecules Could Change the World

Future advances in engineering may come from chemistry. From molecular motors to salt-shaker-drug-deliverers, the future looks small.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/machine
http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2016/advanced-chemistryprize2016.pdf
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2016/popular-chemistryprize2016.pdf
https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nnm.10.111?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov&
https://www.chemistryworld.com/feature/molecular-machines/9457.article
https://horizon-magazine.eu/printpdf/1669
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ja00099a095
http://www.pnas.org/content/78/9/5275
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201703216/full
https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2006.45
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2016/sauvage-lecture-slides.pdf
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/symposia/chemistry/ncs-2001-2/abstract-stoddart.html
http://www.benferinga.com/research_sub1.php
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26990167
https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2014.315
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438546/

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RichardFeynman-PaineMansionWoods1984_copyrightTamikoThiel_bw.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drexler763x1000.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gecko_on_window.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nobel_Laureates_0953_(31117136180).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ben_Feringa_-_april_2017_05.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myosin
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flagellum_base_diagram_en.svg

Every Scientific Study on Arnold Schwarzenegger

Sometimes I use this platform for good, sometimes I use it to uncover every scientific study mentioning Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Please check out Hot Mess! 🔥https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw

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SUBSCRIBE to BrainCraft! 👉 http://ow.ly/rt5IE

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After using a study mentioning Schwarzenegger a few episodes ago, I wondered, “How many scientific studies mention Arnold Schwarzenegger?” And when I looked into it, the answer REALLY got out of hand. This was a real pain in the neck.

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

Thanks to Teagan Wall for her research support (she is now the #1 world expert on Arnold Schwarzenegger in academia). This episode was written by Teagan Wall and Vanessa Hill. Filmed by Dominique Taylor and Edited by Vanessa Hill.

REFERENCES 📚
All papers mentioned here you can find in this document: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1bg_d3ZoFUs-b7V_gVKqZbjgaOdA4fTptCxM_E6xn8X0/edit?usp=sharing

The Real Reason Peppers are Spicy

SciShow’s hot take: Peppers don’t produce that spicy goodness for the reason you think!

Hosted by: Hank Green

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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Sources:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867402006372
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00442-006-0496-y#page-1
https://www.nature.com/articles/35086653
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9035246?dopt=Abstract https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2093168?dopt=Abstract https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3311884/ https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10886-005-9017-4
https://www.theguardian.com/science/grrlscientist/2011/dec/22/economics-red-chili-peppers
https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/archive/chemmatters-dec2013-pepper.pdf http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/105/33/11808.full.pdf https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whats-so-hot-about-chili-peppers-116907465/

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Habanero_peppers.svg#filehistory
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:California_Red_Chili_Peppers.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microconidia_and_Macroconidia_of_the_fungus_Fusarium_sp.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anaheim_Chili_Peppers.jpg

Why Isn’t Cling Wrap as Good as It Used to Be?

“Back in my day, cling wrap was so much better!” Have you ever wondered why cling wrap doesn’t seem to work as well as you remember it to?

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

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Sources:

https://hbr.org/2015/04/sc-johnsons-ceo-on-doing-the-right-thing-even-when-it-hurts-business
https://www.britannica.com/science/polymerization
https://www.britannica.com/science/polyvinylidene-chloride
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1541-4337.12028

Images:

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/cling-film-rolling-on-a-red-background-gm182178381-10482011
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/vegetable-salad-with-plastic-film-gm175247175-22674529